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The Sun is situated below the horizon and the only sources of light that illuminate the smooth and white surface of Europa at this time are Jupiter and Io. The light appears to be somewhat bluish to the human eye, as it happens here on Earth with the moonlight, due to the Purkinje effect: When the luminance level is reduced, our vision changes progressively from photopic (cone cells, full color) to mesopic and finally scotopic (rod cells, black and white) and the last colors we perceive are those of short wavelength. The surface of Europa is very reflective. It has an albedo of 0.64, one of the highest in the Solar System.

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Comment by Joan J. Silvestre Bataller on November 11, 2018 at 1:54pm

Thank you very much, Mario. It's a pleasure to hear from you again.

Comment by Mario John Borgatti on November 10, 2018 at 12:02pm

This is a very beautiful painting and your description is educational as well.

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